Los conectores en inglés (connectorslinkers o linking words) son el pegamento que mantiene unidas las oraciones y establecen diferentes tipos de relaciones entre palabras y frases.

Cuando usamos los conectores en inglés de manera adecuada, organizamos lo que decimos de una manera lógica y comprensible, pero a veces son ciertamente difíciles de usar.

Reason &
Cause / Purpose

Linking words

🔗 Because
🔗 Seeing that
🔗 As
🔗 Since

✓ They all the show reason or cause of something, but BECAUSE can emphasize the reason more strongly. As and since assume that the reason is obvious.

✓ They are all followed by a clause (subject + verb)

+ clause (sentence)

Example

✅ We stayed at home because it was raining.
✅ Seeing that it’s late, we should go home.
✅ As everyone is here, we can begin.
✅ I’m going to bed at 10PM since I need to get up early tomorrow.

Linking words

🔗 Because of
🔗 Due to
🔗 Owing to
🔗 On account off
🔗 As a consequence of as a result of
🔗 Thanks to

✓ They’re normally followed by a noun (phrase).
Because of is used more often than the others.
Verb BE + due to
Owing to is more formal.
On account of often means “because of a problem or a difficulty”.
As a result often means “because of something that has already happened”
Thanks to is used to say that something, usually good, has happened.

+ noun

Example

✅ We stayed at home because of the rain.
✅ The crash was due to bad weather.
✅ Owing to lack of money, the project will not continue next year.
✅ He can’t run very fast on account of his asthma.

Linking words

🔗 Since

Example

✅ We won’t move into London, since we don’t have a house there.

Linking words

🔗 In order to
🔗 So as to
🔗 Since

✓ We normally use them before a verb which expresses the purpose of an action.
✓ In order to and So as to can be more emphatic than to alone.

+ verb in infinitive

Example

✅ She went on a diet in order to lose weight.
✅ She went on a diet so as to lose weight.
✅ She went on a diet to lose weight.

Linking words

🔗 In order that
🔗 So that
🔗 So

✓ We use them before a clause expressing purpose.
✓ The clause contains a MODAL verb.

+ clause (sentence)

Example

✅ We’re leaving now in order that we can arrive early.
✅ We’re leaving now so that we can arrive early.
✅ We’re leaving now so we can arrive early.

Linking words

🔗 Consequently,
🔗 As a result,
🔗 Hence/thus
🔗 Because of that,

✓ We use them to express the result of an action mentioned earlier. When we use them at the beginning of a sentence, they’re followed by a comma.
✓ Hence and thus have the same basic meaning, and are often interchangeable. However, there’s a slight difference: hence usually refers to the future; thus usually refers to the past.
✓ It’s often used to indicate a conclusion.

comma + clause (sentence)

+ comma + sentence

Example

✅ We’re leaving now so that we can arrive early.
✅ We’re leaving now so we can arrive early.
✅ I forgot to set my alarm clock. Consequently, I overslept.
✅ I forgot to set my alarm clock. As a result, I overslept.
✅ John studied hard for the exam. Therefore, he got a good mark.
✅ We received an invitation to visit friends in Portugal, hence we will go to Lisbon this spring.
✅ The American populous is quite divided in their beliefs and aspirations, thus it was a contentious election year.
✅ I forgot to set my alarm clock. Because of that, I overslept.

⚠️ Important

✓ We use so in mid position to introduce a result, and we DON’t put a comma after it.

Example

✅ It’s his birthday on Tuesday so he’s having a party.

Contrast

🔗 But

+ clause

Example

✅ She is successful, but she is so modest.
✅ Jack works very hard, but he doesn’t have a lot of money.

🔗 Although / (even) though

+ clause + comma

Example

✅ Even though she is successful, she is so modest.
✅ Although Jack works very hard, he doesn’t have a lot of money.

🔗 In spite of / Despite

+ noun

+ -ing

+ the fact that + clause + comma

Example

✅ In spite of / Despite her success, she is so modest.
✅ In spite of / Despite being successful, she is so modest.
✅ In spite of / Despite working hard, Jack doesn’t have a lot of money.
✅ In spite of / Despite the fact that she is successful, she is so modest.
✅ In spite of / Despite the fact that Jack works hard, he doesn’t have a lot of money.

🔗 Nevertheless / However

🔗 Even so

+ comma + clause

Example

✅ She is very successful. Nevertheless / However/Even so, she is so modest.
✅ Jack works hard. Nevertheless / However/Even so, he doesn’t have a lot of money.

🔗 Whereas / while

+ clause

Example

✅ She is very successful, whereas / while others are not.

🔗 Yet

comma + clause

Example

✅ Jack works hard, yet he doesn’t have a lot of money.

🔗 On the one hand, … on the other, …

comma + clause

Example

✅ On the one hand, Jacks works hard. On the other, he doesn’t have a lot of money.

Even though is more emphatic than although and though. We use it to emphasize the surprising contrast of the 2 facts:

  • I can still remember that day, even though it was a long time ago.
  • Even though it was a long time ago, I can still remember that day.

We use however meaning “in spite of this fact”. Nevertheless is also possible, but is considered more formal:

  • What you say is true. However, / Nevertheless, it is a little unkind.

We can also use however when we add information that seems surprising or contrasts with what we have just said:

  • This method has been accepted. However, it may not be the best one.

We use whereas to say something is true of one thing but is not true of another:

  • Why are some cancers curable whereas others are not?

We use while at the beginning of a clause to introduce information which contrasts with something we have said in the main clause:

  • The first car is made in Korea while the second one is manufactured in Japan.

Time

🔗 As soon as

✓ Happens immediately after something else happened. At that very moment.

+ clause (sentence)

Example

✅ Please let the dog out as soon as you get home.
As soon as she lost ten pounds, she bought a new dress.

🔗 Before

✓ Previously, earlier than

+ clause (sentence)

Example

✅ Let’s do the chores before we leave.

🔗 Once

✓ Immediately

+ clause (sentence)

Example

✅ I realized I couldn’t forgive her once she had told me the truth.
✅ Once she told me the truth, I realized I couldn’t forgive her.

🔗 Since

✓ Starting from…

+ clause (sentence)

+ noun phrase

Example

✅ He’d been in a grumpy mood since he got up.
✅ I haven’t even seen him since the funeral.

🔗 While

✓ Happens at the same time as another action

+ clause in past continuous

Example

✅ Someone knocked on the door while we were having dinner.
✅ While she was doing some shopping, she met one of her friends.

🔗 Meanwhile / in the meantime

✓ Things happened at the same time, or refers to things that happened after an intervening space of time.

comma + clause

before the main verb

Example

✅ I was working at a restaurant, meanwhile my wife was going to university.
✅ I quit school 3 months ago. I have meanwhile been offered 3 job.

🔗 During

✓ Happens at some point in a period of time.

+ noun phrase

Example

✅ During my university education, I stayed at a state dormitory.
✅ The girl kept playing with her mobile phone during the whole movie.

🔗 By the time

✓ Happened previously/before.

+ clause (sentence)

Example

✅ By the time the waiter took our order, we had waited for an hour.
✅ My mom  had done all the housework by the time I arrived home.

🔗 Until

✓ Continues up to that point and then stops. Up to the time of…

+ clause (sentence)

+ noun phrase

Example

✅ I will stay here until you tell me the truth.
✅ I studied until midnight last night.

🔗 When / whenever

✓ At the moment; each moment.

+ clause (sentence)

Example

✅ When the weather is fine, we go for a drive.

🔗 After

+ clause + , + clause

+ clause + after + clause

Example

✅ After I left school, I went to England.
✅ I went to England after I left school.

🔗 Afterwards

🔗 At last

🔗 Eventually

Add information

🔗 And

+ clause

Example

✅ I like eating pizza and vegetables.

🔗 Also

✓ It normally goes in mid-position of a sentence + clause.
✓ It can also go at the beginning of a clause to give more importance to a new piece of information.

+ clause

+ comma + clause

Example

✅ I also like eating them
✅ She doesn’t only sing; she also plays the piano.
✅ It’s a nice house, but it’s very small. Also, it needs a lot of repairs.

🔗 As well as

✓ At the end of the sentence.

Example

✅ She doesn’t only sing; she plays the piano as well.

🔗 Too

✓ At the end of the sentence.

Example

✅ She doesn’t’ only sing; she plays the piano, too.

🔗 Not only…,

🔗 But also…

✓ We use not only X but also Y in formal contexts.

+ noun

Example

✅ The war caused not only destruction and death but also generations of hatred between the two communities.
✅ The car not only is economical but also feels good to drive.

🔗 Both… and…

✓ We use both … and to emphasise the link between two things. This makes a stronger connection than and alone.

Example

✅ Both Britain and France agree on the treaty. (stronger link than Britain and France agree on the treaty.)
✅ She played both hockey and basketball when she was a student. (stronger link than She played hockey and basketball when she was a student.)

🔗 Either… or

✓ We use either…or to talk about a choice between 2 possibilities.

Example

✅ You can either come with me now or walk home.
✅ You can have either tea or coffee.

🔗 Neither… nor

✓ It connects two or more negative alternatives.

Example

✅ I neither drink nor smoke.
✅ The film was neither well made nor well acted.

🔗 Except (for)…

✓ It substracts. It’s like saying “without”.

+ noun

Example

✅ I like all musical instruments except (for) the violin.
✅ I’ve cleaned the house except (for) the bathrooms.

🔗 Besides

+ comma + clause

Example

✅ The cameras will deter potential criminals. Moreover, they will help police a great deal when a crime actually is committed.
✅ Swimming alone is against the rules and, moreover, it’s dangerous.

🔗 Furthermore

🔗 Waht’s more

✓ Furthermore and what’s more are not exactly synonymous, and are generally found in different contexts.
✓ Furthermore is a transition word that tells the reader to expect an addition to previously stated facts or arguments. It does not imply that the new fact or argument is more important.
✓ Furthermore is most often found in formal written contexts.
✓ What’s more also alerts the recipient to expect a new fact or argument, but it tends to imply that this new fact or argument is more important than those previously stated.
✓ What’s more is much more common in informal spoken contexts than in formal written contexts.

+ comma + clause

Example

✅ The house is cosy. Furthermore, it’s in a great location.
✅ The pictures were beautiful and, what’s more, the children made them themselves.
✅ He was now a king, and what was more, a well-beloved.

🔗 Besides

✓ It usually adds. It’s like saying “with” or “plus”.

+ noun

+ clause

Example

✅ I wasn’t interested n the talk, besides I was feeling very tired.
✅ Besides the violin, he plays the piano and the flute.

Sequencing

🔗 First

✓ At first
✓ In the beginning
✓ In the first place
✓ Starting with
✓ To begin with
✓ Initially
✓ In the first stage/phase

🔗 Before

✓ Earlier
✓ Formerly
✓ In the past
✓ Not long ago
✓ Once
✓ Preceding
✓ Previously
✓ Prior to
✓ Up until that time
✓ Before that

🔗 Next

✓ After
✓ After that
✓ After a while
✓ As soon as
✓ Consequently
✓ Following
✓ Henceforth
✓ Later

🔗 Next

✓ Momentarily
✓ Not long after
✓ Presently
✓ Right after
✓ Second, third…
✓ Shortly after
✓ Soon after
✓ Then

Sometimes

✓ At times
✓ From time to time
✓ Gradually
✓ Occasionally
✓ Periodically
✓ Rarely
✓ Seldom

🔗 Last

✓ After a long time
✓ Eventually
✓ At last
✓ At the end
✓ Finally
✓ In conclusion
✓ In the end
✓ Last of all
✓ To finish
✓ To conclude

Summarizing

🔗 All in all,
🔗 In brief,
🔗 In conclusion,
🔗 In short,
🔗 On the whole,
🔗 To sum up,
🔗 To summarize,

Summary
Conectores en inglés
Article Name
Conectores en inglés
Description
Los conectores en inglés (connectors, linkers o linking words) son el pegamento que mantiene unidas las oraciones. ¡Domina los linking words!
Author
Publisher Name
Dunya Martínez
Publisher Logo

Dunya Martínez

Gerente de TAU y profesora de inglés en la UOC.

Dunya Martínez

Coordinadora, consultora y profesora de inglés en el Centre d’Idiomes Moderns de la UOC. Directora y profesora de idiomas en TAU.

TAU: group

Sant Ramon 23 y 37
08922 Santa Coloma de Gramenet

T: +34 93 386 26 97
E: dunya@tauformar.com
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